copy of a 17th C. Mughal painting of Jahangir shooting Malik Ambar through the head. Malik began life as a slave in India. He was freed when his owner died. He became the most prominent African to rule over non-Africans when in 1560 he took over the Nizam Shahi kingdom in Deccani India. He built cities, formed a revenue system that lasted until Indian independence, was a great general, and successful at guerrilla warfare." Freer Gallery of Art, D.C.