‘Başıbozuk’ (irregular soldier of the Ottoman army). Circa 1880. A ‘başıbozuk’ (damaged head), or ‘delibaş’ (crazy head) - both meaning "free headed", "disorderly" - may be a Circassian, Kurd, Arab, Albanian, or Turk. They were armed and maintained by the government, but didn’t receive pay, nor wear uniforms or distinctive badges. They were motivated to fight mostly by expectations of plunder. As a result, they were particularly noted for their uncertain temper and lack of discipline.