Ottoman Zeybeks (Zeibek / Ziebek). Zeybecks were irregular militia and guerrilla fighters living in the Aegean Region of the Ottoman Empire from late 17th to early 20th centuries, of Thracian origin.

Portrait of a well-to-do citizen, in the company of two ‘başıbozuk’: one from the Albania/Epirus region (in white dress), and one from western Anatolia (in dark dress). Late-Ottoman era, end of century.

Bashi-bazouk or bashibazouk (Turkish literally "damaged head", meaning "free headed", "leaderless", "disorderly") was an irregular soldier of the Ottoman army. Particularly noted for their lack of discipline.

Bashi-bazouk or bashibazouk (Turkish literally "damaged head", meaning "free headed", "leaderless", "disorderly") was an irregular soldier of the Ottoman army. Particularly noted for their lack of discipline.

Turkish basi bozuk in Bulgaria 1877-78. Bashi-bazouk or bashibazouk (Turkish literally "damaged head", meaning "free headed", "leaderless", "disorderly") was an irregular soldier of the Ottoman army. Particularly noted for their lack of discipline.

Turkish 'başıbozuk’ in Bulgaria. Late-Ottoman, Bashi-bazouk or bashibazouk (Turkish literally "damaged head", meaning "free headed", "leaderless", "disorderly") was an irregular soldier of the Ottoman army. Particularly noted for their lack of discipline.

Zeybek / Ziebek / Zeibek from İzmir, Zeybecks were irregular militia and guerrilla fighters living in the Aegean Region of the Ottoman Empire from late 17th to early 20th centuries, of Thracian origin.

Zeybek / Ziebek / Zeibek from İzmir, Zeybecks were irregular militia and guerrilla fighters living in the Aegean Region of the Ottoman Empire from late to early centuries, of Thracian origin.

An ‘Efe’ (or: ‘Zeybek’) from the Izmir region, in traditional outfit.  Late-Ottoman era, 1860-1880.  The ‘Efe / Zeybek’ were the 18th-19th century people’s militia of the Aegean coastal area, who sometimes turned themselves into professional brigands.

An ‘Efe’ (or: ‘Zeybek / Zeibek / Ziebek’) from the Izmir region, in traditional outfit. Late-Ottoman era, The ‘Efe / Zeybek’ were the century people’s militia of the Aegean coastal area, who sometimes turned themselves into professional brigands.

Portrait of two ‘Efe / Zeybek’ (the local 18th-19th century people’s militia from the Aegean region), who sometimes turned themselves into professional brigands, or joined the Ottoman army as ‘başıbozuk’ (mercenary, or irregular soldier).  The photograph dates from the late 19th century.

Sebah, Pascal - Zeybeks / Zeibek / Ziebek, no. albumen print Zeybecks were irregular militia and guerrilla fighters living in the Aegean Region of the Ottoman Empire from late to early centuries, of Thracian origin.

Bashibazouks, Irregular Soldiers of the Ottoman Army, 1877 (Osmanlı Başıbozuklar, 1877)

'Başıbozuk’ / Bashibazouks, Irregular Soldiers of the Ottoman Army, From left to right: Caucasian / Circassian, Zeybek / Zeibek / ziebek (Izmir region), Arab.

Zeibek costume from the Maeander plain. - LABORDE, Léon Emmanuel - GEZGİNLERİN BAKIŞI - Yerler - Anıtlar – İnsanlar Güneydoğu Avrupa - Doğu Akdeniz Yunanistan - Anadolu - Güney İtalya - 15. yüzyıl - 20. yüzyıl

Zeibek costume from the Maeander plain. - LABORDE, Léon Emmanuel - GEZGİNLERİN BAKIŞI - Yerler - Anıtlar – İnsanlar Güneydoğu Avrupa - Doğu Akdeniz Yunanistan - Anadolu - Güney İtalya - 15. yüzyıl - 20. yüzyıl

Crimean War, Albania, Middle East, Egypt, Ottomans, Battle, Turkey, Warriors, Profile

Emile-Coriolan- Hippolyte Guillemin (1841-1907) - Portrait of a Turkish soldier (Bashi-Bazouk), bronze, overall, 87,6 cm high.

Emile-Coriolan- Hippolyte Guillemin - Portrait of a Turkish soldier (Bashi-Bazouk), bronze, overall, cm high.

A group of ‘Efe’ (or: ‘Zeybek’) from the Izmir region, in traditional outfit.  Late-Ottoman era, end of 19th century.  The ‘Efe / Zeybek’ were the 18th-19th century people’s militia of the Aegean coastal area, who sometimes turned themselves into professional brigands.

A group of ‘Efe’ (or: ‘Zeybek’) from the Izmir region, in traditional outfit. Late-Ottoman era, end of century. The ‘Efe / Zeybek’ were the century people’s militia of the Aegean coastal area, who sometimes turned themselves into professional brigands.

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