Paul Newman served in the United States Navy in World War II in the Pacific theater. Unable to be a pilot, because he was colour blind, he was sent instead to boot camp and then received further training as a radioman and gunner. He qualified as a rear-seat radioman and gunner in torpedo bombers, in 1944. He later flew from aircraft carriers as a turret gunner in an Avenger torpedo bomber. As a radioman-gunner, he served aboard the USS Bunker Hill during the Battle of Okinawa, 1945.