Ashmolean Museum, University of Oxford, EA1978.2573. ‘The angel Ruh holding the celestial spheres’. A single page from a manuscript of Zakariya ibn Muhammad al-Qazwini ‘s The Wonders of Creation and the Oddities of Existence (Arabic: ‘Aja’ib al-makhluqat wa-ghara’ib al-mawjudat). Western Iran, second half of the 16th century.

‘The angel Ruh holding the celestial spheres’, a page from a manuscript of Zakariya ibn Muhammad al-Qazwini's The Wonders of Creation and the Oddities of Existence (Arabic: ‘Aja’ib al-makhluqat wa-ghara’ib al-mawjudat) - Iran

Mughal manuscript attributed to Abu’l Hasan, 1605-08. In the center a very large tree with mult-colored leaves filling most of the page. Squirrels scamper on the branches as a man attempts to get a foothold.

Squirrels in a Plane Tree, attributed to Abu’l Hasan, Johnson Album © The British Library Board

(Kabus, the incubus). Seyyid Mohammed b. Emir Hasan el-Suudî, Matâli’ al-sa’âdet. Istanbul, 1582.

Bibliothèque nationale de France, Supplément turc f. (Kabus, the incubus). Seyyid Mohammed b. Emir Hasan el-Suudî, Matâli’ al-sa’âdet.

Combat between Isfandiyar and Simurgh  Shah-nama (Firdawsi's 'Book of Kings').  Shiraz, 1330.  Hazine 1479, folio 145a

Combat between Esfandyar and Simorgh in the Shahnameh, Ferdowsi's Book of Kings, Shiraz, 1330 edition.

The Afrit are the most powerful type of Djinn. They can take any form they desire, though they often have cloven hooves and horns, and are are very, very large and terrifying. The Afrit live in the Arabian Penninsula in the desert regions and along the eastern coast of Africa in the mud along lakes and rivers. They delight in dragging children away and killing them. Their name translates as "unclean spirits", and they are inherently evil.

An Ifrit named Arghan Div brings the chest of armor to Hamza.


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