MUSTAFA KEMAL ATATÜRK

MUSTAFA KEMAL ATATÜRK

Ottoman Janissaries (conscripted soldiers) were divided into 101 ortahs (regiments), each Janissary tattooed a mark on his arm showing his ortah. A crescent was the symbol of the first ortah (the Sultans ortah), the thirty-first ortah which served on board the fleet, was an anchor. The number of Janissaries in each ortah was varied, greater numbers were in the most distinguished; the number in some was extremely large, that of the thirty-fifth, amounting to nearly thirty thousand.

Because of the weakening of the Ottoman Empire conservative Janissaries blocked needed military reform and allowed their state to lose ground to European rivals. Also the weakness in technology included the imperial navy.

”Three different Turks”.  Ca. 1880, Late-Ottoman Empire. From left to right: a ‘başıbozuk’ (irregular soldier of the Ottoman army), a beggar (holding up his left hand) and – probably - a lower-rank military of the regular army, on leave.

Giants- ”Three different Turks”. From left to right: a ‘başıbozuk’ (irregular soldier of the Ottoman army), a beggar (holding up his left hand) and – probably - a lower-rank military of the regular army, on leave.

Thirteen Ottoman Sultans Anonymous, ca. 1600, from The Sultan’s Portrait – Topkapı Palace Museum

“Ottoman miniatures of the first thirteen Ottoman sultans (Osman I to Mehmed III). Topkapi Palace Library, MS B

The rulers made a profit off the faction rivalries. The scholars were happy with the sultans, they were stable. Once the empire expanded, the sultans lost their local connections. Viziers, like the one shown above, held powerful positions. The rulers would involve their sons in their careers. Imperial succession ultimately weakened the empire.

century painting showing the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed IV, Taking the throne at age six, his reign was significant as he changed the nature of the Sultan's position forever by giving up most of his executive power to his Grand Vizier.

(Yeniceri)Janissary Aga,The yatagans used by janissaries and other infantry soldiers were smaller and lighter than ordinary swords so as not to hinder them when carried at the waist on the march. It is named after the town of Yataðan in southwest Turkey (now in Denizli province) which was conquered by a Seljuk commander and blacksmith named Osman Bey, whose cognomen was Yataðan Baba.  http://www.network54.com/Forum/248068/thread/1280803957/1289718888/ANTIQUE+OTTOMAN+SWORDS+AND+KNIVES

(Yeniceri)Janissary Aga,The yatagans used by janissaries and other infantry…

İzmir- zeybek / zeibek / ziebek, Zeybecks were irregular militia and guerrilla fighters living in the Aegean Region of the Ottoman Empire from late 17th to early 20th centuries, of Thracian origin.

İzmir- zeybek / zeibek / ziebek, Zeybecks were irregular militia and guerrilla fighters living in the Aegean Region of the Ottoman Empire from late to early centuries, of Thracian origin.

SMiLeS, The Ottoman Legend: Sokollo Mehmed Pasha

SMiLeS, The Ottoman Legend: Sokollo Mehmed Pasha

SMiLeS, The Ottoman Legend: Sokollo Mehmed Pasha

SMiLeS, The Ottoman Legend: Sokollo Mehmed Pasha

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