BÍGA POMAK evli kadın COSTUME.

The full traditional festive costume of married women. Including pictures of the costume’s 16 components. The 'Biga Pomaks’ are Bulgarian Muslims, who emigrated from southern Bulgaria to their actual settlements in the Biga district (Çanakkale province, NW Turkey) in 1878 (and following years).
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The front of a ‘pullu cepken’ (jacket) from the Pomak villages near Biga (Çanakkale province), mid-20th c.  Part of a festive women’s costume.  Satin fabric, adorned with cotton embroidery, silver and gold zigzag ribbons, silvery cord, metallic & mica sequins, small glass beads, (cotton or orlon) pom-poms, buttons.  Edged with (mixed cotton & lurex) ‘oya’/lace, combined with sequins.  (Inv.nr. cep060  - Kavak Costume Collection - Antwerpen/Belgium).

The front of a ‘pullu cepken’ (jacket) from the Pomak villages near Biga…

A traditional festive costume from Pomak villages near Biga (Çanakkale prov.), mid-20th c.  Setting: ‘evli kadın’ (married woman).  Characteristics: 1) the ‘önlük’ (apron) is worn on top  of the ‘arkalık kuşak’ (triangular waist cloth):  2) the hat & imitation hair (black cotton plaits, attached to back of the hat) are covered by the headscarf.  (Kavak Costume Collection - Antwerpen/Belgium).

A traditional festive costume from Pomak villages near Biga (Çanakkale prov.), mid-20th c. Setting: ‘evli kadın’ (married woman). Characteristics: 1) the ‘önlük’ (apron) is worn on top of the ‘arkalık kuşak’ (triangular waist cloth): 2) the hat & imitation hair (black cotton plaits, attached to back of the hat) are covered by the headscarf. (Kavak Costume Collection - Antwerpen/Belgium).

A traditional bridal/festive ‘fes’ (hat) from the Pomak villages near Biga (Çanakkale prov.), mid-20th c.  The cap is adorned with metal & mica sequins, small golden spirals, glass beads, metal (imitation) Ottoman coins, and (cotton or orlon) pom-poms.  (Inv.nr. ba$036  - Kavak Costume Collection - Antwerpen/Belgium).

A traditional bridal/festive ‘fes’ (hat) from the Pomak villages near Biga (Çanakkale prov.), mid-20th c. The cap is adorned with metal & mica sequins, small golden spirals, glass beads, metal (imitation) Ottoman coins, and (cotton or orlon) pom-poms. (Inv.nr. ba$036 - Kavak Costume Collection - Antwerpen/Belgium).

A traditional bridal/festive ‘başlık’ (headgear) from the Pomak villages near Biga (Çanakkale prov.), mid-20th c.  The cap is adorned with metal & mica sequins, small golden spirals, glass beads, metal (imitation) Ottoman coins, and (cotton or orlon) pom-poms.  The other part of the headgear consists of ‘imitation hair’ (black cotton plaits, attached to the back of the hat and adorned with tassels & beads).  (Inv.nr. ba$036  - Kavak Costume Collection - Antwerpen/Belgium).

A traditional bridal/festive ‘başlık’ (headgear) from the Pomak villages near Biga (Çanakkale prov.), mid-20th c. The cap is adorned with metal & mica sequins, small golden spirals, glass beads, metal (imitation) Ottoman coins, and (cotton or orlon) pom-poms. The other part of the headgear consists of ‘imitation hair’ (black cotton plaits, attached to the back of the hat and adorned with tassels & beads). (Inv.nr. ba$036 - Kavak Costume Collection - Antwerpen/Belgium).

An ‘arkalık’ (waist cloth)  from the Pomak villages near Biga (Çanakkale prov.).  Part of the traditional festive costume for women.  1950-1975.  The triangular printed cotton fabric is adorned with cotton crochet lace & interweaving, (cotton or orlon) pom-poms & tassels, and lots of sequins (both metal and mica).  (Inv.nr. ark028 - Kavak Costume Collection - Antwerpen/Belgium).

An ‘arkalık’ (waist cloth) from the Pomak villages near Biga (Çanakkale prov.

Front and rear of a ‘dokuma işli üçetek’ (handwoven and worked robe-with-three-panels) from the Pomak villages near Biga (Çanakkale province), mid-20th c.  Handwoven woollen fabric, adorned with cotton embroidery, silver and gold zigzag ribbons, sequins (metallic & mica), small glass beads, (cotton or orlon) pom-poms, buttons.  (Inv.nr. üçe021  - Kavak Costume Collection - Antwerpen/Belgium).

Front and rear of a ‘dokuma işli üçetek’ (handwoven and worked…

The rear of a ‘dokuma işli üçetek’ (handwoven and worked robe-with-three-panels) from the Pomak villages near Biga (Çanakkale province), mid-20th c.  Handwoven woollen fabric, adorned with cotton embroidery, silver and gold zigzag ribbons, sequins (metallic & mica), small glass beads, (cotton or orlon) pom-poms, buttons.  (Inv.nr. üçe021  - Kavak Costume Collection - Antwerpen/Belgium).

The rear of a ‘dokuma işli üçetek’ (handwoven and worked robe-with-three-panels)…

A pair of adorned ‘kolluk’.  From the Pomak villages in the Biga district (Çanakkale province), 1950-1975.  ‘Kolluk’ are upper arms protectors; generally made of a cheap kind of fabric - they avoid washing the full robe too often. These ones are not longer functional, but part of a traditional festive costume.  Made of a synthetic printed fabric; adorned with glass beads, metal & mica sequins and cotton embroidery.  (Inv.nr. koL003  - Kavak Costume Collection - Antwerpen/Belgium).

A pair of adorned ‘kolluk’. From the Pomak villages in the Biga district (Çanakkale province), 1950-1975. ‘Kolluk’ are upper arms protectors; generally made of a cheap kind of fabric - they avoid washing the full robe too often. These ones are not longer functional, but part of a traditional festive costume. Made of a synthetic printed fabric; adorned with glass beads, metal & mica sequins and cotton embroidery. (Inv.nr. koL003 - Kavak Costume Collection - Antwerpen/Belgium).

Front of a ‘dokuma işli üçetek’ (handwoven and worked robe-with-three-panels) from the Pomak villages near Biga (Çanakkale province), mid-20th c.  Handwoven woollen fabric, adorned with cotton embroidery, silver and gold zigzag ribbons, sequins (metallic & mica), small glass beads, and buttons.  (Inv.nr. üçe021  - Kavak Costume Collection - Antwerpen/Belgium).

Front of a ‘dokuma işli üçetek’ (handwoven and worked robe-with-three-panels) from the Pomak villages near Biga (Çanakkale province), mid-20th c. Handwoven woollen fabric, adorned with cotton embroidery, silver and gold zigzag ribbons, sequins (metallic & mica), small glass beads, and buttons. (Inv.nr. üçe021 - Kavak Costume Collection - Antwerpen/Belgium).

A traditional festive headgear from the Pomak villages near Biga (Çanakkale prov.).  Setting for married women.  Mid-20th century.  The cap is adorned with metal sequins, glass beads, metal (imitation) Ottoman coins, (cotton or orlon) pom-poms.  (Kavak Costume Collection - Antwerpen/Belgium).

A traditional festive headgear from the Pomak villages near Biga (Çanakkale prov.). Setting for married women. Mid-20th century. The cap is adorned with metal sequins, glass beads, metal (imitation) Ottoman coins, (cotton or orlon) pom-poms. (Kavak Costume Collection - Antwerpen/Belgium).

A traditional festive women’s ‘kemer’ (belt) from the Pomak villages near Biga (Çanakkale prov.).  Mid-20th century.  Made of wool and felt, adorned with cotton embroidery, metal sequins, small glass beads and cotton crochet ‘oya’ (lace).  (Inv.nr. bon029  - Kavak Costume Collection - Antwerpen/Belgium).

A traditional festive women’s ‘kemer’ (belt) from the Pomak villages near Biga (Çanakkale prov.). Mid-20th century. Made of wool and felt, adorned with cotton embroidery, metal sequins, small glass beads and cotton crochet ‘oya’ (lace). (Inv.nr. bon029 - Kavak Costume Collection - Antwerpen/Belgium).

A ‘pullu cepken’ (jacket) from the Pomak villages near Biga (Çanakkale province), mid-20th c.  Part of a festive women’s costume.  Satin fabric, adorned with cotton embroidery, silver and gold zigzag ribbons, silvery cord, metallic & mica sequins, small glass beads, (cotton or orlon) pom-poms, buttons.  Edged with (mixed cotton & lurex) ‘oya’/lace, combined with sequins.  (Inv.nr. cep060  - Kavak Costume Collection - Antwerpen/Belgium).

A ‘pullu cepken’ (jacket) from the Pomak villages near Biga (Çanakkale…

An embroidered cotton ‘etek’ (skirt)  from the Pomak villages near Biga (Çanakkale prov.).  Part of the traditional festive costume for women.  Circa 1950-1975.  Hand-woven fabric, adorned with (cotton & lurex threads) embroidery, metal & mica sequins, cotton crochet lace with metal sequins, glass beads and (cotton or orlon) pom-poms.  (Inv.nr. ete003 - Kavak Costume Collection - Antwerpen/Belgium).

An embroidered cotton ‘etek’ (skirt) from the Pomak villages near Biga…

Traditional woollen ‘önlük’ (apron) from the Pomak villages in the Biga district (Çanakkale province).  Locally called ‘önleç’.  Part of a bridal/festive costume, 1950-1975.  Adorned with cotton embroideries, small glass beads, imitation Ottoman coins, multicoloured pom-poms and lots of sequins (both metal and mica); the lower border edged with cotton crochet lace.  (Inv.nr. önL103 - Kavak Costume Collection - Antwerpen/Belgium).

Traditional woollen ‘önlük’ (apron) from the Pomak villages in the Biga district (Çanakkale province). Locally called ‘önleç’. Part of a bridal/festive costume, 1950-1975. Adorned with cotton embroideries, small glass beads, imitation Ottoman coins, multicoloured pom-poms and lots of sequins (both metal and mica); the lower border edged with cotton crochet lace. (Inv.nr. önL103 - Kavak Costume Collection - Antwerpen/Belgium).

Traditional woollen ‘çanta’ (shoulder bag) from the Pomak villages in the Biga district (Çanakkale province).  Part of a festive costume, ca. 1975.  Adorned with metal sequins and small pom-pom-like tassels.  (Inv.nr. çan008 - Kavak Costume Collection - Antwerpen/Belgium).

Traditional woollen ‘çanta’ (shoulder bag) from the Pomak villages in the Biga district (Çanakkale province). Part of a festive costume, ca. 1975. Adorned with metal sequins and small pom-pom-like tassels. (Inv.nr. çan008 - Kavak Costume Collection - Antwerpen/Belgium).

Long underpants (‘dokuma don’), for women.  From the Pomak villages in the Biga district (Çanakkale province).  Hand-woven cotton (home industry), mid-20th century.  (Inv.nr. don037b - Kavak Costume Collection-Antwerpen/Belgium).

Long underpants (‘dokuma don’), for women. From the Pomak villages in the Biga district (Çanakkale province). Hand-woven cotton (home industry), century.

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