Because of the weakening of the Ottoman Empire conservative Janissaries blocked needed military reform and allowed their state to lose ground to European rivals. Also the weakness in technology included the imperial navy.
A ‘başıbozuk’ (irregular soldier of the Ottoman army). From the Balkans (Epirus or Albania). Late-ottoman, half of the century. This doesn't look a like a Bashi Bazouk but more like a normal Greek or Albanian male.