Ottoman clothing belonging to Demirci Mehmet Efe (1885-1959) , early 20th century. Efe was a Zeibek/Zeybek leader, he became known in the vicinity of Ödemiş, Denizli and Aydın. Upon the Greek embarkation in İzmir on May 15, 1919, he joined the resistance group. He joined under the command of Major İsmail Hakkı Bey on July 10, 1919 in Umurlu. Proving useful in raids against the Greeks he was assigned as Commander of the Kiosk Front of the Kuvayımilliye [the National Forces].
(Original photograph + coloured version of) Warrior-type men in their typical costume, inside a coffee-shop. Istanbul, late 19th c. These men, mostly born in families with a martial tradition, could become either highwayman, either bodyguard or ‘başıbozuk’ (irregular soldier in the Ottoman army).