Ottoman dental book showing molars infected with toothworms. As early as Babylonian times and lasting well into the 18 century, it was thought that a toothache was caused by worms. The theory was disproved by Jacob Christian Schaffer in Tooth worms?
Folio from a Mu'nis al-Abrar fi Deqa'iq al-Ash'ar (Free Man's Guide to the Subtleties of Poetry) by Badr al-Din Jajarmi (d. The Zodiac Constellation of Pisces, the moon, and two registers of birds; reverse: text: verses of poem
Mughal Miniature - Akbarnama Red Fort at Agra during construction - from the Akbarnama Akbarnama, is the official chronicle of the reign of Akbar, the third Mughal Emperor, commissioned by Akbar himself by his court historian and biographer, Abul Fazl who was one of the nine jewels in Akbar's court.
Top: Head of a youth; Bottom: Old man drawn up cloth over his head Riza Abbasi ca. Safavid period Ink on paper H: W: cm Isfahan, Iran Purchase--Smithsonian Unrestricted Trust Funds, Smithsonian Collections Acquisition Program, and Dr. Arthur M.