Two men in ceremonial costumes, from Beyrouth (Libanon), 1894. Top: an Arab landlord. Bottom: a Turkish townsman.
Men in Ottoman costumes, Crete, 19th century.
”Three different Turks”. Ca. 1880, Late-Ottoman Empire. From left to right: a ‘başıbozuk’ (irregular soldier of the Ottoman army), a beggar (holding up his left hand) and – probably - a lower-rank military of the regular army, on leave.