”Three different Turks”.  Ca. 1880, Late-Ottoman Empire. From left to right: a ‘başıbozuk’ (irregular soldier of the Ottoman army), a beggar (holding up his left hand) and – probably - a lower-rank military of the regular army, on leave.

”Three different Turks”. Ca. 1880, Late-Ottoman Empire. From left to right: a ‘başıbozuk’ (irregular soldier of the Ottoman army), a beggar (holding up his left hand) and – probably - a lower-rank military of the regular army, on leave.

OTTOMAN GENERAL GHAZI OSMAN PASHA Plevne Müdafii Gazi Osman Paşa

OTTOMAN GENERAL GHAZI OSMAN PASHA Plevne Müdafii Gazi Osman Paşa

Kurdish men, Urfa, 1900, from http://kurdistania.tumblr.com

Kurdish men, Urfa, 1900, from http://kurdistania.tumblr.com

Armenians and Armenian Photographers in the Ottoman Empire. J. Pascal Sebah (Armenian, 1823-1886), Armenian Family, ca. 1880. Los Angeles, Getty Research Institute (96.R.14, Box 80) -

Armenians and Armenian Photographers in the Ottoman Empire. J. Pascal Sebah (Armenian, 1823-1886), Armenian Family, ca. 1880. Los Angeles, Getty Research Institute (96.R.14, Box 80) -

1873 photogravure. (1) Christian woman villager of Chania; (2) Christian villager of Chania; (3) resident of Sphakia. from the province of Crète, Ottoman Empire by Pascal Sabah bestpictresof

1873 photogravure. (1) Christian woman villager of Chania; (2) Christian villager of Chania; (3) resident of Sphakia. from the province of Crète, Ottoman Empire by Pascal Sabah bestpictresof

Circassian, Cherkess

Circassian, Cherkess

Men in Ottoman costumes, Crete, 19th century.

Men in Ottoman costumes, Crete, 19th century.

TURKISH NATIONALIST ARMY, 1921–22 1: Captain, Infantry, 1921; 2: MajGen Ismet Pasha, Inonu, January 1921; 3: Cavalry lancer, 1922; 4: Volunteer, Giresun Bodyguard, 1921

TURKISH NATIONALIST ARMY, 1921–22 1: Captain, Infantry, 1921; 2: MajGen Ismet Pasha, Inonu, January 1921; 3: Cavalry lancer, 1922; 4: Volunteer, Giresun Bodyguard, 1921

Flag of the Young Turk movement, c. 1908 Embroidered in white: ”Adalet” (Justice), “Hürriyet” (freedom), “Müsavit” (equality), “Uhuvvet” (brotherhood) and “Ittihat” (unit).:

Flag of the Young Turk movement, c. 1908 Embroidered in white: ”Adalet” (Justice), “Hürriyet” (freedom), “Müsavit” (equality), “Uhuvvet” (brotherhood) and “Ittihat” (unit).:

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