Aragon also previously controlled the Duchy of Milan, but a year before Charles ascended to the throne, it was annexed by France after the Battle of Marignano in 1515.

The battle of Marignano saw the French successfully employ combined arms doctrine, coordinating its cavalry, infantry and artillery to keeps the Swiss at bay. The arrival of her Venetian ally on the second day helped win the day.

Model of one of Barbarrosa's galleys

Reconstruction of Barbarossa's galley during his campaign in France Istanbul Naval Museum

Barbarossa's naval victories secured Ottoman dominance over the Mediterranean during the mid 16th century, from the Battle of Preveza in 1538 until the Battle of Lepanto in 1571.

Redbeard- Hayreddin Barbarossa, or Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha c.

A Holy League, which consisted of all the Italian states and Spain, was formed in 1538 to drive the Ottomans back, but was defeated at the Battle of Preveza.

A Holy League, which consisted of all the Italian states and Spain, was formed in 1538 to drive the Ottomans back, but was defeated at the Battle of Preveza.

Charles V

Charles V - wanted to unite all of Christendom under one banner, beat the infidel of Islam and bring together the world as one in God's kingdom on earth. A central figure in wars all over Europe, France was his greatest enemy.

Hapsburg Empire during the reign of Charles V

This map, from the Cambridge Modern History Atlas depicts the extent of the Habsburg Dominions in 1547 (at the abdication of Charles

Francis I was taken at the Battle of Pavia in 1526

Artist: Richard Parkes Bonington Title: Charles V visits Francis I after the Battle of Pavia Museum: Wallace Collection, London, England

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